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Gana Porutham

Gana Porutham in Hindu Marriage

The Hindu marriage system has been built around the concept of Poruthams, or forming the perfect match between grooms and brides before the alliance is finalised. The rich culture and traditions of the Hindu religion is as much a scientific approach to marriage as it is a divine art. In this piece, we shall discuss what Gana Porutham in Hindu marriage is and what its significance is in forming the right alliance that would live a long, happy and prosperous life.
Gana Porutham in Hindu Marriage:
Porutham, also known as Koota, forms the elementary aspect of determining the alliance between the woman and the man. Devised by the ancient saints, sages and seers, the kootas or agreements of the birth stars and the rasis of the boy and the girl, along with the effects of the navagrahas and their planetary positions, determine the prospects of matches between the groom and the bride. With the navagrahas in transit across the paths of the 27 nakshatras, there tends to be a range of influences on the future of the groom and the bride, their interactions and the life that they are set to lead with each other.
The compatibility of the human minds and their bodies is determined by the second porutham or koota, called Gana Porutham. Gana porutham is nothing but the classification and categorisation of the 27 nakshatras into three groups, with each group falling under the influence of one set of Ganas. The three sets of Ganas are:
• Deva Gana
• Manusha Gana
• Rakshasa Gana
Deva Gana or Deva Ganam:
The first set of nakshatras that are classified under Deva Gana include Ashwini, Mrigaseersham, Punarpoosam, Poosam, Hastham, Swathi, Anusham, Thiruvonam, and Revathi. Deva Ganam is nothing but a representation of the divine, the Creator, the celestial beings, and the noble forces that keep the world going round and life ticking. The characteristics of the nakshatras that belong to Deva Gana include calmness of mind, maturity of perspective, and goodness of behaviour. People who are born in the nakshatras that belong to Deva Gana tend to be soft spoken, good natured and have high regard for the values and virtues of life.
Manusha Gana or Manusha Ganam:
This is the second series of nakshatras that are classified under Manusha Ganam. The nakshatras that make it to this classification are Bharani, Rohini, Thiruvadirai, Pooram, Uthiram, Pooradam, Uthiradam, Poorattathi and Uthirattathi. Manusha Ganam implies an affiliation to human characteristics and qualities. What are the characteristics of human beings in terms of their nature and behaviour? They would have the goodness of the Devas and the illnesses of the demons. They are generally torn between the virtues and the vices. For as much of a divine relationship that they share with nature, they also tend to be prone to destructive influences. People born on this set of nakshatras tend to have the characteristics that are readily associated with the normal human qualities. While they tend to be good in their overall behaviour and outlook, they also tend to have the negative aspects such as anger and a tendency towards enmity.
Rakshasa Gana or Rakshasa Ganam:
The final set of nakshatras classified according to their characteristics is Rajshasa Gana, which is a manifestation of the Asuras. The set of nakshatras that come under this classification are Krithigai, Ayilyam, Makam, Chithirai, Visakam, Kettai, Moola, Avittam, and Sadayam. To be sure, though the name of Rakshasa Gana conveys the bad qualities associated with Rakshas, it is just the dark side of people that is underscored and highlighted in the case of these nakshatras. People of Rakshasa Gana tend to be aggressive in their behaviour, rude in their communication and rough in their dealing with people and situations. People belonging to this set of nakshatras tend to find it difficult to get along with people and often tend to have unpleasant experiences in terms of their interpersonal skills and interactions.
The significance of Gana Porutham in Hindu Marriage:
Now that we know the characteristics of each of the three Ganas and the way nakshatras are organised under the three categories, how do they impact the lives of prospective couples? Why Gana Porutham for marriage is such a significant factor?
Well, the answer lies in the way life is to be lived and the balance to be maintained in married life. The significance of marriage is that the husband and the wife should complement each other. And such balance can be achieved only when there is good compatibility between the couple, and when the strengths and weaknesses of the two individuals are adequately compensated for by each other’s characteristics. Getting couples married in the same Ganas or between different Ganas would have implications for their future as well as for their physical health and peace of mind.
Eka Ganam is the situation where both the boy and the girl are of the same Gana, which is said to be the most appropriate in married life. Matchmaking is said to be at its best if the boy and the girl belong to the same Gana, and they belong to the nakshatras of Deva Gana or Manusha Gana. However, if the girl and the boy belong to different Ganas, it would still be a good match if there is a difference of at least thirteen nakshatras between the boy and the girl. The match between a girl of Manusha Ganam and a boy of Rakshasa Ganam would still make the cut, if the other aspects of the horoscope are conducive.
However, Eka Ganam or the situation of the girl and the boy belonging to the same Gana is not advised if both were to be of Rakshasa Gana. Further, it is also a practical problem, where Rakshasa Gana girls have to get married – some speculate that Rakshasa Gana girls tend to be talkative without appreciating the situation. While Rakshasa Gana girls may not get married to boys of Rakshasa Gana, it would still be worthwhile to go for a difference of 13 nakshatras between the girl and the boy of Rakshasa Gana. Needless to say, due consideration has to be given to the other factors involved in horoscope and matchmaking in this case.

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